Why diets do not work?
Over the past few thousand years, man, homo sapiens, from a physiological point of view, and hence from a biochemical one, has not changed at all. No We have changed psychologically, yes! They have become less resilient to physical labor, to the harsh living conditions, more demanding to the structure of life, we want more comfortable conditions both at home and at work, and so on and so forth. But our physics and chemistry have not changed in any way.
Why am I doing this? And the fact that in our time (meaning the last 20-30 years), mankind is offered various types of diets. It is impossible to list everything, there are a lot of speculations on this topic, which means that there are a lot of speculators (authors and followers of these crazy theories). Dry food, separate nutrition, diet according to blood group (guard!), Protein nutrition, vegetarianism (there is a total mess here!), Starvation ...
The authors and ideological inspirers of these absurd theories (supposedly diets), manipulating medical and scientific terms along with complete nonsense, as well as taking advantage of the illiteracy of the population, profitably sell their know-how,creating “rehabilitation centers” under the guise of medical toll institutions, are fabulously enriched by the folly of people (I don’t want to offend anyone), and after a while another marvelous system of healing is safely forgotten. But! Appear to replace others. Sometimes the people who create them are not cynical, eager to be enriched at the expense of others. They themselves deeply believe in the ideas they proclaimed and even are obsessed with them. And this obsession sweeps away everything in its path: they even seek to promote their, to put it mildly, scientifically unfounded ideas, even into official medical institutions. This happened more than once. Then the years pass, and all the absurdity of the next know-how becomes clear, and they quietly fold it. But human physiology and biochemistry remain. If they do not have time to undermine the next newfangled diet.
Very short educational program on the gastrointestinal tract
As you know, the process of digestion begins in the mouth. Saliva is produced here. The saliva contains enzymes, there are a lot of them - about 30. These enzymes should have time to affect food while it is in the mouth.For this food must be chewed thoroughly. Very carefully. To the state of liquid slurry. The famous saying "Who chews for a long time, lives for a long time" is absolutely true. In addition, saliva lysozyme has a powerful bactericidal effect on food, disinfects it. And the oral cavity itself can be called a garbage! After all, there live several hundred varieties of bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa. By the way, mummies who shove a pacifier into a child’s mouth, having previously licked it, I want to send it to general medical courses. Nowadays, it’s unacceptable to not know such basic hygiene concepts!
Then the food enters the esophagus, which, by contracting, pushes it into the stomach. Here is the further digestion of food. In the stomach, there are three types of glands that secrete digestive enzymes - the so-called pepsins, gelatinase, chymosin, lipase ... Also, the glands secrete acid, which causes the enzymes to work. Still exudes mucus, cleansing the gastric mucosa. A mixture of mucus and acid is what we call gastric juice. The enzymes pepsins break down complex proteins into simple proteins that are already processed in the intestine. Gelatinase converts into protein gelatin contained in the connective tissue of animals.Chymosin, together with pepsins, makes milk proteins.
You see how great everything is and how it is arranged: our gastrointestinal tract is created to digest both vegetable and animal food, both together and separately. Juice in the stomach is simply not produced, this process starts in two directions - the reflex (brain path) and the gastric (neurohumoral) path. The reflex phase goes first - in case of irritation of hearing, sight, smell (before eating) - and continues with food (reflexes from the oral mucosa, pharynx, esophagus come in). This phase is caused by conditioned and unconditioned reflexes (remember the dogs of I. I. Pavlov?). This is the so-called appetizing salivation. It can be interrupted quite easily (disgusting smell, a repulsive type of food or eating place, unexpected pain and so on).
The second phase - the gastric (neurohumoral) - is directly related to the effect of food on the receptors of the gastric mucosa, the active stimulation of the digestive centers, the formation of substances that increase secretion. These substances are acetylcholine, stomach acid, gastric hormones (gastrin and others).Stomach juice is released as long as food is in it (6–10 hours), then food, having already become a liquid mass, enters the intestine, where absorption of beneficial components for the body and the formation of slags take place, which are eliminated as stools.
Here is such a complex, highly organized mechanism of human digestion. Therefore, in order for food to be beneficial and well assimilated, it is not the diets that are needed at all, but the observance of the simplest rules of eating. The diet is extremely important. Here, too, there are many opinions, sometimes very strange. Someone advises not to eat in the morning, someone, on the contrary, does not recommend in the evening. But, again, as everywhere and in everything, prudence must be exercised. 4–5 meals a day are important, breakfast is necessary, a full meal and, of course, dinner (preferably two hours before bedtime). Many variations, depending on our lifestyle. But, most importantly, food should be simple, healthy, rational. Let the food be high-quality, tasty, healthy, simple. And you all enjoy your appetite and good health.
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