What are homonyms?
This article will give an idea of what homonyms are. Homonyms are words that are identical in language, but different in meaning. The linguistic form of words - their spelling or sound - is identical with homonymy.
The difference between homonyms and ambiguous words
Homonyms must be distinguished from ambiguous words. Homonyms are words that coincide in sound and spelling, but have nothing in common in semantics. For example, the word "marriage" in the meaning of "the union of two people loving each other" and "marriage" in the sense of "spoiled products".
Polysemantic words have several meanings. The same word can call different objects, actions and signs. For example, the word "comb" denotes a plate with teeth for hair care, and the top of the wave, and the top of the mountain, and an oblong growth on the head of birds. In this case, between these objects there is a similarity in form, which indicates polysemy. New meanings appear in the word in connection with the transfer of names from one object to another. There are two types of transfer:
- Similarity (metaphor). For example, a ribbon of a road (in form), copper hair (in color), a sea of tears (in quantity).
- According to the real connection between objects (metonymy).For example, the hall applauded (spatial connection, that is, the room and the people in it are called in one word). Wearing gold is a logical connection between a material and a product made from this material. Here are some more examples of the transfer: to put Chekhov (the connection of the author and his work), the first racket (transfer from the whole to the part is a synecdoche). All these are multi-valued words.
Forms of homonymy and phenomena adjacent to it
Complete lexical homonymy is the identity in all forms of words of one part of speech. The words “dress” in the meaning of “clothes” and “dress” in the meaning of “disposition” do not differ in spelling and pronunciation, they coincide in all cases in singular and plural numbers.
Incomplete (partial) lexical homonymy manifests itself when not every grammatical form, sound and spelling of words of one part of speech coincide. The verbs “to bury” (ditch) and “to bury” (eye drops) do not coincide with the forms of the perfect form: I bury and dig in.
Now it is clear what word-homonyms are. However, related phenomena are also considered. They are associated with grammatical, phonetic and graphic levels of the language.
- Omoforms are words that coincide in any one form.Rarely coincidence occurs in several forms. For example, the homoforms are the numeral "three" in the nominative case (three friends) and the verb "three" in the imperative mood of units. the numbers of the 2nd person (three grated potatoes).
- Homophones are words that are the same in sound, but different in spelling: meadow and bow, old-timer and guard, carry and carry, lick and climb, young and hammer.
- Omographs are written in the same way, but the pronunciation is different: the circles are circles, the steam is steam, and so on. In these examples, the emphasis is on different syllables.
The goal is to show in practice what the homonyms are, the examples given in the article perform very well. Thus, it is necessary to distinguish between the concepts of homonymy and polysemy (polysemy), to be able to determine homoforms, homophones and homographs.
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